Treasure Chest Thursday – Mary Ellen (Dame) Shackford’s Will (Blog 325)

It’s not often that we find wills for women born in 1810 but Mary Ellen (Dame) Shackford who is listed as blind in the 1880 census and lived to the age of 92, outliving her husband by 16 years left us a wonderful will that gives some insights into her four living children.  Also, Mary Ellen’s will, dated Oct 31, 1899 was signed by her sister, Harriet Patience Dame, the famous Civil war nurse who died in April 1900.

Mary Ellen Dame, the daughter of James Chadbourne and Phebe Agnes (Ayers) Dame was born on August 26, 1810 in Barnstead, New Hampshire. When she was 20 she married William Shackford, and moved to Concord, New Hampshire where he worked as millwright and farmer living at Free Bridge Road opposite the fair grounds. Mary died in Kingston, New York on November 8, 1902 and was buried at Blossom Hill Cemetery in Concord, New Hampshire.

Her will lists the following children:

James C Shackford – Funds were placed in trust to care for him – married Harriet Ida Young in 1915 – he was 78 at the time of his marriage

Harriet N (Shackford) Blaisdell of Pauntucket, RI, (1831-1906) married Samuel LeBarton Blaisdell

Mary E Bunton of Roundout, NY (appointed executrix) (1839-1927) married William Ellingwood Bunten

Alphonso Shackford of Providence, RI


Will Mary Ellen Dame Shackford Page 1Be it known, That I,
Mary Shackford of Concord in the Country of Merrimack and
State of New Hampshire being of sound and perfect mind and memory, do make, publish and declare this my last will and testament, and herein dispose of all my worldly goods in manner and form following:
FIRST: I direct my executrix herein named to pay all my just debts and funeral charges as soon as may be after my decease.
SECOND: To my beloved son, James C. Shackford, I give and bequeath all my household furniture and furnishings of every description.
THIRD: To my beloved daughter Harriet N. Blaisdell of Pauntucket, Rhode Island, and Mary E. Bunton of Rondout, New York, I give and bequeath all my wearing apparel, personal ornaments and
other chattels, except my funds deposited in the New Hampshire Savings Bank and my household furniture and furnishings bequeathed to my son James.
Fourth: My funds now on deposit, or hereafter to be deposited, in the New Hampshire Savings Bank of Concord, N. H., I give and bequeath to my said daughter, Mary E. Bunton, in trust however for the following purposes.
1. To care for, invest and preserve the same during the life of my said son James.
2. To pay over the income thereof to said James, to pay from said funds to my beloved son Alphonso Shackford of Providence, Rhode Island, the sum of three hundred dollars; and to divide the remainder
thereof into equal parts, and pay to each of my said daughters one of said parts. In case either said Alphonso, or Harriet, or Mary shall died before said James, I give and bequeath his or share to his or her heirs.
FOURTH: I hereby appoint my said daughter, Mary E. Shackford Bunten, sole executrix of this my last will and testament, and I direct that she be not required to give sureties on her bond as executrix or trustee.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 31st day of October, 1899.
Mary Shackford (SEAL)
Signed, sealed, published and declared by the said Shackford as and for her last
WILL and Testament in our presence and we have hereunto set our names as witnesses thereto in her presence and in the presence of each other; and we further certify that this will was read over to said Mary Shackford before she signed the same
Harried P. Dame
William T. Fiske
Henry F. Hollis.

All posts on this website are a work in progress.  We’d love to learn of any corrections or additions to the information shared.  Also we’d love it if  you’d like the post here or at as that helps share the post with others. Thanks!


1891. The Concord Directory: of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Manufacturing Establishments, Societies, Business, Business Firms, State Census, Map, Etc. (N.p.: Littlefield Directory Publishing Co., No. 12 Post Office Square, Boston), p. 264, Mary Shackford, widow of William; digital image, ( : accessed 13 May 2013).

“MARRIAGES.,” New Hampshire Statesman and Concord (New Hampshire) Register, 15 January 1831; digital images, Godfred Memorial ( : accessed 20 August 2013), 19th Century Newspapers.

“NECROLOGY DEATHS IN KINGSTON AND OF LOCAL PEOPLE ELSEWHERE,” The Kingston Daily Freeman (Kingston, New York), 1 January 1903; digital images, HRVH Historical Newspapers ( : accessed 3 January 2014).

“New York, Wills and Probate Records, 1659-1999,” digital images, ( : accessed 2 September 2015), Mary Shackford

Copyright 2017 Joanne Shackford Parkes  (sharing a link to this post is appreciated but please do not copy this material and paste it elsewhere)

Workday Wednesday – Alphonso Shackford, Manufacturer of Springs, Axles and Carriages (Blog 324)

In 1892, this wonderful description of Alphonso Shackford’s business was published in the Industries and Wealth of the Principal Points in Rhode Island.

Alphonso was the son of William and Mary Ellen (Dame) Shackford born in Concord, New Hampshire on Jan 23, 1832. He moved to Providence, Rhode Island in 1859 where he remained the rest of his life.  We have records of two marriages  very close together – an Elizabeth R Pero on 24 April 1858 and Margaret Elizabeth O’Connell on Jan 1, 1859 and are wondering if perhaps this is the same person — we’ll review this further and add an update in the future along with more details about Alphonso.

A Shackford Manufacturer of SpringsA Shackford, Manufacturer of Springs, Axles and Carriages, No. 105 Orange Street and No. 123 Dorrance Street. This is the oldest house in its line in the city. Mr. Shackford is a New Hampshire man by birth. He came to this city in 1857, and from that time to 1861 had the contract for making carriage springs and axles in the county prison. In the latter year he established himself in the business on Point Street, and afterwards formed a copartnership with a Mr. Sweet under the firm title of the Providence Spring and Axle Works, which continued for three years, when the company dissolved and the business passed into the control of Mr. Shackford, and under his enterprising management a very large and influential trade was developed, and as it increased and required better facilities, he moved to his present quarters in 1875. The premises occupied are very spacious and commodious, compromising a three-story building 50 x 125 feet in dimensions, which is thoroughly equipped with all the latest improved machinery, tools and appliances, together with ample steam-power, and employment is afforded a full force of skilled and experienced workmen. The axles and springs produced here are noted for their superior excellence, and are in constant demand wherever introduced, while the vehicles manufactured here are unsurpassed for their lightness, durability, finish, and quality of materials and workmanship, and the prices are extremely reasonable. In addition to the manufacturer of springs, axles and carriages, he conducts a general blacksmithing business, and does all kinds of repairing in his line of trade. A full stock of boxes, iron hubs, carriage springs, axles and other requisites for the trade is kept constantly on hand, and all orders are filled promptly.




Industries and Wealth of the Principal Points in Rhode Island: Being City of Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls, Woonsocket, Newport, Narragansett Pier, Bristol and Westerly (A. F. Parsons Publishing Company, 1892), page 182; digital images, Google Books ( : accessed 24 February 2016.


Sunday’s Obituary – Increase Jordan Shackford (1855-1933) (Blog 323)

According to his obituary, Increase Jordan Shackford  was born at Cooper, Maine on June 17, 1855 to Jeremiah and Sarah J (Jordan) Shackford.  In 1860 he was living with his parents on their farm in Cooper with siblings Eunice and Sybil.  According to his obituary  the family moved to Ellsworth, Maine the next year and in 1870 we find Increase living there with his parents.

Increase’s intention to marry Almira S Grace was announced on June 29, 1876 and they married on July 5, 1876. We find the family in the 1880, 1890 (with his mother Sarah G listed as having 5 children, 1 living), 1910, 1920, and 1930 censuses.

The only other records we’ve found so far involving Increase are various property records, deeds and references to a small bank account at Hancock County Savings Bank.  We may review some of the deeds at a later date as they substantiate his family relationships.


Mabel A Shackford (1878-1930)

Richmond I Shackford (1901-1964) – listed as a foster child in Almira’s obituary.  His birth record is a deposition reported by Elmira S. Shackford on Dec 1, 1942. married Josephine E Severence.  Interestingly he is not mentioned in Increase’s obituary.

Dorothy A Shackford (1902-1986) – married Millard B Bowden

Thanks to the Ellsworth Library, we have this copy of Increase’s obituary which tells us a bit about his life and who attended his funeral.  We’re particularly interested in the last three people listed, Mrs. Fannie Young, Mr and Mrs Arthur Moore and Mrs Frank Watts of Otis, Maine as we believe they are descendants of Increase’s sister Sarah W Shackford.


Obituary Increase Jordan Shackford Ellsworth American Mar 15 1933Increase J. Shackford died at his
home on the Mariaville road Wed-
nesday, March 8, after ten days
illness of bronchial pneumonia.
Mr. Shackford was born at Cooper
June 17, 1885, son of Jeremiah and
Sarah J. Shackford, and at the
age of five came with his parents
to the home where he passed
away. On July 5, 1876, he married
Elmira Grace of Harrington, who
survives him with one daughter,
Dorothy Bowden. An older daugh-
ter, Mabel, died three years ago.
Mr. Shackford had been in ill
health and unable to walk for
nearly eight years. He had been
patiently and tenderly cared for
by his wife and daughter. The
funeral was held at the home Fri-
day afternoon, with Rev. J. G.
Snapp officiating. Internment was
at Juniper cemetery. The bearers
were Scott Moore, Gary Moore,
Kidder Moore and Daniel Hayes.
Those from out of town here to at-
tend the funeral were Mr and Mrs
Frank McDevitt of Addison, Mrs
Herbert Tucker, Cherryfield, Mr
and Mrs Harley Grover and El
mer Grace Harrington; Mr. and
Mrs Walter Grace, Bar Harbor;
Mr. and Mrs. Gleason Foss, Han-
cock; Mrs. Sarah Strout, Elis-
worth; Mrs. Fannie Young, Mr
and Mrs Arthur Moore and Mrs
Frank Watts, Otis.


1860 United States Federal Census, Washington County, Maine, population schedule, Cooper, page 235, dwelling 57, family 55, Jeremiah Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 30 November 2013).

1870 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth, Page No 123, dwelling 927, family 927, Jereh Shackford; digital image, ( : accessed 4 February 2015).

1880 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth, Ward 3, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 143, Page No 42 (B), dwelling 398, family 447, Increase J Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 30 December 2013).

1900 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth City, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 55, Sheet No 22 (A), dwelling 405, family 408 (406, 419 written above), Increase Shackford; digital images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 December 2013).

1910 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth, Ward 3, ; digital images, ( : accessed ).

1920 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth City, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 18, Sheet No 1 B, Fm, Dwelling no 23, Visited No 23, Increase J Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 30 December 2013).

1930 United States Federal Census, Hancock County, Maine, population schedule, Ellsworth City, Ward 3, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 5-17, Sheet No 3A (penned), 117 (stamped), North Street, dwelling 68, family 68, Increase Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 30 December 2013).

Forty-Second Annual Report of the Bank Examiner of the State of Maine of the Condition of the Savings Banks Trust and Banking Companies Loan and Building Associations and Foreign Banking Companies Having License to do Business in the State 1898 (Augusta: Kennebec Journal Print, 1898), page 491; digital images, Google Books ( : accessed 30 December 2013

Increase Jordan Shackford, obituary clipping, Ellsworth American, Ellsworth, Maine, 15 March 1933. Accessed on Feb 2015 thanks to the Ellsworth Library.

Newell C. Hall, Downeast ME Genealogy ( : accessed 11 February 2015),, permission received from Mr Newell to share information in the database about Increase Shackford.



Treasure Chest Thursday – Franklin Pierce Shackford’s Will (Blog 322)

Franklin Pierce Shackford, the son of Jonathan and Harriett N. (Farnham) Shackford was born June 1, 1854 in Chester, New Hampshire and lived with his parents in Chester until at least 1880 when he was “working on shoes”.

When he was 33, Franklin married Helen A Lewis, the daughter of John E and Helen A (Stevens) Lewis on Dec 14, 1887 in Portsmouth, Maine and returned to Chester where he worked as a mason and served as a selectman.  His wife worked as a dressmaker and raised their two children.  Sometime before 1910 they moved to Derry where Franklin worked as a mason, farmer, and shoe maker.  Franklin died in Manchester at the age of 72 on July 5, 1926 of a cerebral hemorrhage after being a patient in the Lucy Hasting Hospital for about four weeks and was buried at the Forest Hill Cemetery in East Derry.

Franklin had written his will in 1910 designating his beloved wife as administrator but unfortunately she had died on March 12, 1925.  We have not yet found who assumed that responsibility but know that he also left $500 to his two children Elsie M Shackford who had married Benjamin Shubel Hoisington in 1923 and Irwin Lewis Shackford who had married Annette Mabel Parsons in 1913.

Franklin P Shackford’s Will

Will Franklin P ShackfordWill Franklin P Shackford Derry
Be it Remembered that I Franklin P Shackford of Derry, in the County of Rockingham and State of New Hampshire, considering the uncertainty of this mortal life and being of sound mind and perfect memory, do make and publish this as my last will and testament hereby revoking all other wills heretofore by me made in the manner following
First After the payment of my just debts and funeral expenses by my executor, hereinafter named, I give and bequeath to my daughter Elsie M Shackford the sum of five hundred dollars
Second I give and bequeath to my son, Irwin L Shackford the sum of five hundred dollars

Third I give, bequeath and devise all the rest and residue of my estate, both real and personal of every description and where ever found to my beloved wife Helen A Shackford to her own and behalf forever.
Fourth I do hereby appoint my said wife sole
executor of this my last will and testament to
furnish a surety as sureties on her bond as
such executrix.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my
hand and seal this sixteenth day of February 1910.
Frank P Shackford (seal)
Signed, published, and declared by the above
Franklin P Shackford as and for his last will
and testament in the presence of us three, who at
his request in his presence and in presence of
each other have subscribed our names as witnesses
as hereto.
Edwin B Weston
A Arlean Bartlett
George I Bartlett
Recorded truly Robet Scott Registrar


1880 United States Federal Census, Rockingham County, New Hampshire, population schedule, Chester, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 200, Page No 9, dwelling 93, family 97, Jonathan Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 21 May 2015).

1900 United States Federal Census, Rockingham County, New Hampshire, population schedule, Chester, enumeration district (ED) Enumeration District No 184, Sheet No 7, dwelling 172, family 189, Frank Shackford; digital images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 21 May 2015).

Annual Reports of the Selectmen, Overseer of the Poor, Town Treasurer, Town Clerk School Board, Library Trustees, and Auditors of the Town of Chester for the Year ending February 14, 1903. (Derry, N. H.: Charles Bartlett, Printer, 1903), page 4; digital images, My Heritage Library Edition ( : accessed 28 January 2015.

The Derry and Chester (N. H.) Directory Containing an Alphabetical List of the Inhabitants and Business Firms, Streets, Town Officers, Societies, Churches, and Other Miscellaneous Matter 1916-1917 Vol. 1 (Salem, Mass: The Henry M. Meek Publishing Co, 1916), page 99, Franklin P Shackford; digital images, ( : accessed 21 May 2015).

New Hampshire, New Hampshire Death Records, 1654-1947,, Franklin P Shackford, 5 July 1926; index and digital images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 May 2013).

New Hampshire, New Hampshire, Marriage Records, 1637-1947, , Franklin P Shackford m Helen A Lewis, 14 December 1887; index and images, Family Search ( : accessed 21 May 2015).

“New Hampshire, Wills and Probate Records, 1643-1982,” digital images, ( : accessed 18 February 2016), Franklin P Shackford, Will, page 109 (Image 212 of 977).

Tuesday’s Tip – Newpaper Article Tells Us Details about Charles H Shackford (Blog 321a)

We LOVE newspaper articles because we learn details about a person or family that we wouldn’t find in a vital record.

For example this notice appeared in the The Fitchburg Sentinel on June 28, 1883:

Fitchburg Sentinel Jun 18 1883 Emeline Shackford liberated Son CharlesLiberation Notice
I this day give my son, Charles H. Shackford, the time during the remainder of his minority, and I shall neither claim any of his wages or pay any debts of his contracting after this date.
Fitchburg, June 27, 1883 je27 st

From vital records, we know that Charles, the youngest son of Nathaniel and Emeline (Lovering) Shackford was born on June 13, 1867 and was ten when his father died on March 14, 1877.  Charles’ oldest brother Albert married in 1879 and had moved to Vermont and elder brother Elmer had moved to Boston and was working on the railroad.

In 1883 when this liberation notice was published, Charles was 16, the only child living at home with a widowed mother and was working at the Simonda Manufacturing, a company which made saws and machine knives.  He was boarding with his mother at 5 Green street in Fitchburg, Mass. By 1885 he was still employed at Simonda Manufacturing and mother and son were living at 115 Myrtle in Fitchburg.

Without the newspaper article we wouldn’t know this aspect of the relationship between Charles and his mother.  We don’t know who initiated the Liberation Notice – perhaps Charles wanted to ensure he kept his salary or his mother wanted to ensure she didn’t inherit his debts or this was some sort of requirement for young employees.

We do know that Charles married Elmira Isabelle Holman in Keene, New Hampshire on May 17, 1886 and died of typhoid fever nine months later on Feb 14, 1887.

Charles was only 19 years old, had been working since he was at least 16, had probably been supporting his mother, and had a new wife. He was buried in Keene with a very nice gravestone.

All posts on this website are a work in progress.  We’d love to learn of any corrections or additions to the information shared.  Also we’d love it if  you’d like the post here or at as that helps share the post with others. Thanks!


Fitchburg Directory, Containing a General Directory of Its Citizens, Business Directory, New Map, Street Directory, City and County Register, Etc. No. XI, For the Year Commencing January 15th, 1883 (N.p.: Price, Lee & Co, 1883), page 137, Emeline E Shackford; digital image, Google eBooks ( : accessed 28 June 2015).

Find A Grave, Find A Grave, digital images ( : accessed 17 July 2014), Charles H Shackford, Find A Grave Memorial# 100804479

Massachusetts, Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, BIRTHS registered in the Town of Fitchburg in the year 1867, Charles Hiram Shackford, 13 June 1867; digital images, ( : accessed 18 July 2013); Town and City Clerks of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Vital and Town Records.

Massachusetts, Massachusetts, Death Records, 1841-1915, , Nathaniel Shackford, death, 14 March 1877; digital images, ( : accessed 31 July 2013); Massachusetts Vital Records, 1840–1911. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts

New Hampshire, New Hampshire, Death Records, 1654-1947,, Charles H Shackford, 14 February 1887; digital images, FamilySearch, New Hampshire, Death Records, 1654-1947 ( : accessed 6 June 2014).

New Hampshire, Marriage and Divorce Records, 1659-1947,” digital images, ( : accessed 31 July 2013), Chas H. Shackford m. Elmaria Isabel Holman May 17, 1886.

Copyright 2017 Joanne Shackford Parkes  (sharing a link to this post is appreciated but please do not copy this material and paste it elsewhere)


Amanuensis Monday – In 1858, Nathaniel Shackford of Pembroke Asks For Custody of His Son Albert Eugene Shackford (Blog 321)

On November 18, 1858, Nathaniel Shackford of Pembroke, New Hampshire told the Worcester County court that he was the father of Albert Eugene Shackford who was being kept at the Nashua House on Lincoln Street in Worcester by his wife Emeline E (Lovering) Shackford.

Nathaniel Shackford Asks for Custody of his Son Albert Eugene ShackfordTo the Hon Henry Chapin Judge of
Probate and Insolvency within and for the County of Worcester
Respectfully compains
That Nathaniel Shackford
of Pembroke in the State of New Hampshire
that he is the father of a child of the name
of Albert Eugene Shackford that said child is of
the age of twenty one months; that said child
is unlawfully restrained of its liberty and kept
from the custody of him the said Nathaniel
Shackford by Emmeline E. Shackford wife of
said Nathaniel Shackford and mother of said
child at the Nashua House (so called) on Lincoln
Street in said Worcester, that the said Nathaniel
Shackford is of sufficient ability to support
said child & is anxious so to do but is unable
to obtain the custody of said child he being
restrained by said Emmelline E Shackford –
and the complaintaint further says that the
said Emmeline E. Shackford is not a proper
person to have the control and custody of
said child – Wherefore he prays that a write
of habeas corpus may be issued to bring the
the body of said Albert Eugene Shackford before
your Honor and to summon said Emmeline
E Shackford to appear to show the cause of
detaining said Albert E Shackford from the
custody of said Nathaniel Shackford,
Worcester Nov 18 1858 Nathaniel Shackford
Subscribed & Sworn to before me
Admin Mazer
Justice of the Peace
Let a writ issue
returnable at the
probate office fortwith

The Judge Henry Chapin required Emeline to bring her son Albert to the court and issued a decision that custody of Albert E Shackford shall be bestowed to Emeline E Shackford, the mother.

The Lowell Daily Citizen published an article on Nov 23, 1858 related to this case with a blunt statement stating that the suit disclosed that Nathaniel was a common drunkard.  Two years later Nathaniel enlisted as a Private into the 28th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry stating he was 41 years old (we believe he was 60) and was discharged for disability three months later on Dec 13, 1861.  He then reunited with Emeline and had two sons, Elmer Ellsworth Shackford born Sept 1862 and Charles H Shackford born June 1867.  After Nathaniel died in 1877 Emeline filed for a pension and was listed in many directories as the widow of Nathaniel H Shackford.

All posts on this website are a work in progress.  We’d love to learn of any corrections or additions to the information shared.  Also we’d love it if  you’d like the post here or at as that helps share the post with others. Thanks!


Massachusetts, Worcester, , “Worcester County, Massachusetts, Probate Index, Vol. 1 & 2 A – Z, July 1731-1881,”, (: accessed 17 August 2013), Albert E Shackford

Massachusetts, Worcester, , “Worcester County, MA: Probate File Papers, 1731-1881,” New England Genealogical Historical Society, (: accessed 15 February 2016), Albert E Shackford Case 52989

Copyright 2017 Joanne Shackford Parkes  (sharing a link to this post is appreciated but please do not copy this material and paste it elsewhere)

Sunday’s Obituary – Mrs Emeline (Lovering) (Bliss) Shackford (1832-1895) (Blog 320)

We’ve found a wonderful obituary for Emeline E Lovering Shackford from which we learn her husband’s name (Nathaniel), that she was a widow, her cause of death (dropsy), the address she lived at when she died, the names of her parents (Hiram and Annie (Pettey) Lovering), the name of her first husband (William Bliss), that she had a son by her first husband who is still living (George W Bliss, who we had presumed was dead as he did not seem to live with her after 1855), the names of two sons with Nathaniel Shackford who are living (Albert and Elmer Shackford), the name of a living brother (Silas M Lovering), and that she has three living sisters (names not provided).


Death Notice Mrs Emeline Shackford widow of Nathaniel Shackford Fitchburg Sentinel 7 Nov 1895– Mrs. Emeline E., widow of Nathan-
iel Shackford, died of dropsy at her
home, 54 Clinton street, at about 5:30
this morning. She was a native
of Townshend, Vt., and was of a
family of 10 children of Hiram and
Annie (Pettey) Lovering. She came to
Fitchburg with her parents 46 years ago,
and has since resided here. She was
twice married. Her first husband was
William Bliss, by whom she had one
son, George W. Bliss, a resident of Brat-
tleboro; she leaves two other sons, Albert
and Elmer Shackford, the latter of whom
resides at Houston, Tex. She also leaves
one brother, Silas M. Lovering of this
city, and three sisters.

All posts on this website are a work in progress.  We’d love to learn of any corrections or additions to the information shared.  Also we’d love it if  you’d like the post here or at as that helps share the post with others. Thanks!


“Local Matters,” Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts), 7 November 1895, Obituary – Emeline E Shackford, widow of Nathaniel; digital images, ( : accessed 25 August 2015).

Copyright 2017 Joanne Shackford Parkes  (sharing a link to this post is appreciated but please do not copy this material and paste it elsewhere)